Following data collected by Ptolemy (90 A.D.-168 A.D.)
Claudius Ptolomy was a celebrated astronomer, mathematician, and geographer who lived in Alexandria. Although his thinking influenced contemporary Arab geographers, little was known of his work in the West until manuscripts from Constantinople reached Italy in about 1400. These manuscripts were written in Greek and contained the names of every city, island, mountain and river known to the many travelers interviewed by Ptolomy. In addition, the latitude and longitude of each of the resulting eight thousand locations were also recorded. They were translated into Latin by 1401 and appeared in print by 1475. The earliest Byzantine manuscript maps, drawn by analyzing the Ptolomy figures, date from the twelfth century. A number of handdrawn copies were made in Italy throughout the early fifteenth century to accompany Ptolomy's text.
Ptolomy stressed the importance of accurate observations in order to calculate latitude and longitude, and laid down the principals of systematic cartography that remain to this day. Obviously there are many errors in Ptolomy's maps, due to the limited extent of basic geographic information at that time and the lack of a method of determining accurate longitudes. Judged by modern standards, the basic shortcoming of the Ptolomy world map is the small area it portrays. The Mediterranean is fairly well depicted, but is greatly exaggerated in length (Longitudinally). The effect of this, combined with Ptolomy's disregard for Eratosthenes' extremely accurate estimate of the earth's circumference (c. 200 B.C.) and the use of a Posidonius' much smaller flawed estimate (c. 50 B.C.) implied a much shorter distance across that part of the unknown earth's surface not drawn on the map. Columbus and his contemporaries based their exploratory ventures on Ptolomy's calculations and, like him, had no idea of the vast New World to the west, interposed between Europe and Asia.
Work on the first “printed” atlas was started in 1473 and finally published in 1478. There are very few surviving examples of this atlas
(One of the 1478 Atlases is preserved in the Karpeles Manuscript Library in addition to this second separate example of the map shown here; which was for some reason removed from another copy of the atlas).