THE TREATY OF BREDA

Marking the ENGLISH POSESSION OF NEW YORK

 

Formal publication of the Treaty of Breda, one in English and one in Dutch, signed by representatives of both powers, printed in the neutral city of Breda where the treaty was ratified, proclaiming in English and Dutch that "to the honour of God and the common Good of the Kingdomes" and "to the advantage of all the Subjects and Inhabitants of the same," a "true, firm and indissolable Peace was made and concluded" between King Charles II of Great Britain and the States General of the United Netherlands." The treaty, agreed in July 1667, has now been duly ratified on "within this Towne of Breda," rendering the treaty "full and perfectly accomplished." The text goes on to specify the exact dates for the full cessation of hostilities "throughout the whole world," and stipulates that no seizures of ships or goods by the former combatants will be countenanced. Finally, it announces that the treaty has been "concluded, signed and confirmed by our respective seales, and proclaymed by sound of Trumpet."

 

The Treaty of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667), a largely maritime struggle between three colonial powers--France, the Netherlands and Great Britain. Even before war was declared, a British expeditionary force under Admiral Richard Nicoll had seized the Dutch colonies in present-day New York and New Jersey, and claimed the territory for James, Duke of York. After several major sea battles and an audacious Dutch raid on English vessels anchored at the mouth of the Thames ("The Raid on the Medway"), ministers of both nations signed the Treaty of Breda on 31 July 1667. Among its provisions, England relinquished to France holdings in Acadia and Penobscot (present day Maine) and acquired several former Dutch colonies in the Caribbean in exchange for Surinam. More importantly, English ownership of the former Dutch colonies of New Netherlands was confirmed.

 [Not to be confused with the Declaration of Breda of 1660 marking Charles II’s restoration of the Monarchy]